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This book investigates the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB), one of the oldest and largest mining areas not only in Poland but also in Europe. Using uniform research methods for the whole study area, it also provides a summary of the landscape transformations. Intensive extraction of hard coal, zinc and lead ores, stowing sands and rock resources have caused such extensive transformations of landscape that it can be considered a model anthropogenic relief. The book has three main focuses: 1) Identifying anthropogenic forms of relief related to mining activity and presenting them from a spatial, genetic and age perspective; 2) Determining the changes in the morphometric characteristics of relief and the conditions for matter circulation in open systems (drainage basins) and closed systems (land-locked basins) caused by the extraction of mineral resources; and 3) Estimating the extent of anthropogenic denudation using two different methods based on raw-material output and morphometric analysis. In Poland, no other mining area has undergone such intensive mining activity as the Upper Silesian Coal Basin during the last half century. Its share in the total extraction of mineral resources was as high as 32%. The total extraction of hard coal in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin from the mid-18th century until 2009 was the sixth largest in the world, and the permanent, regional effects of mining anthropopressure on the relief are among the most severe in the world. The anthropogenic denudation rate in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, as well as the Ruhr Coal Basin (Ruhr District) and the Ostrava-Karvina Coal Basin, ranges from several dozen up to several hundred times higher than the rate of natural denudation, irrespective of the calculation method used. It would take the natural denudation processes tens of thousands of years to remove the same amount of material from the substratum as that removed through human mining activity.
If speculation were an exact science, one would simply have to analyze a situation, select the appropriate rule, and buy or sell accordingly. But the factors that influence prices are infinite in number and character, as well as in their effect upon the market; and the speculator's forecasts of the probable outcome are nothing more than composite products of his own emotional equipment, his theoretical knowledge of the principles involved, and that reservoir of accumulated memories called "Experience." -from "Intuition" The corporate arena in the United States has changed tremendously since the early years of the Great Depression, but the basics of buying, selling, and making-and losing-money in the stock market have remained the same. This eighth edition of a classic of stock speculation was assembled from articles appearing in The Magazine of Wall Street in 1926 and 1927 and updated in 1933, just as new market rules and regulations were coming into play to prevent Black Friday from occurring again. With a straightforward tone and solid insight, this work, still recommended as must reading for players in the market, covers: . the principles and techniques of manipulation . tape reading . the law of averages . charts and mechanical systems . fundamentals . what to buy, and when . rights, arbitrage, and puts and calls . and more. JOHN DURAND also wrote How to Secure Continuous Security Profits in Modern Markets (1929). A. T. MILLER is also the author of Principles of Successful Speculation (1931)."
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